April 18, 2024
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I’m excited to announce the final availability of Amazon Linux 2023 (AL2023). AWS has supplied you with a cloud-optimized Linux distribution since 2010. That is the third era of our Amazon Linux distributions.

Each era of Amazon Linux distribution is secured, optimized for the cloud, and receives long-term AWS help. We constructed Amazon Linux 2023 on these ideas, and we go even additional. Deploying your workloads on Amazon Linux 2023 provides you three main advantages: a high-security customary, a predictable lifecycle, and a constant replace expertise.

Let’s have a look at safety first. Amazon Linux 2023 contains preconfigured safety insurance policies that make it simple so that you can implement widespread trade pointers. You possibly can configure these insurance policies at launch time or run time.

For instance, you’ll be able to configure the system crypto policy to implement system-wide utilization of a particular set of cipher suites, TLS variations, or acceptable parameters in certificates and key exchanges. Additionally, the Linux kernel has many hardening options enabled by default.

Amazon Linux 2023 makes it simpler to plan and handle the working system lifecycle. New Amazon Linux main variations shall be out there each two years. Main releases embody new options and enhancements in safety and efficiency throughout the stack. The enhancements may embody main adjustments to the kernel, toolchain, GLib C, OpenSSL, and every other system libraries and utilities.

Throughout these two years, a serious launch will obtain an replace each three months. These updates embody safety updates, bug fixes, and new options and packages. Every minor model is a cumulative listing of updates that features safety and bug fixes along with new options and packages. These releases may embody the newest language runtimes corresponding to Python or Java. They could additionally embody different fashionable software program packages corresponding to Ansible and Docker. Along with these quarterly updates, safety updates shall be supplied as quickly as they’re out there.

Every main model, together with 2023, will include 5 years of long-term help. After the preliminary two-year interval, every main model enters a three-year upkeep interval. Through the upkeep interval, it would proceed to obtain safety bug fixes and patches as quickly as they’re out there. This help dedication provides you the steadiness it’s good to handle lengthy venture lifecycles.

The next diagram illustrates the lifecycle of Amazon Linux distributions:

Final—and this coverage is by far my favourite—Amazon Linux offers you with deterministic updates by means of versioned repositories, a versatile and constant replace mechanism. The distribution locks to a particular model of the Amazon Linux package deal repository, providing you with management over how and once you take in updates. By default, and in distinction with Amazon Linux 2, a dnf replace command is not going to replace your put in packages (dnf is the successor to yum). This helps to make sure that you’re utilizing the identical package deal variations throughout your fleet. All Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) cases launched from an Amazon Machine Picture (AMI) can have the identical model of packages. Deterministic updates additionally promote utilization of immutable infrastructure, the place no infrastructure is up to date after deployment. When an replace is required, you replace your infrastructure as code scripts and redeploy a brand new infrastructure. In fact, if you actually wish to replace your distribution in place, you’ll be able to level dnf to an up to date package deal repository and replace your machine as you do at the moment. However did I let you know this isn’t an excellent observe for manufacturing workloads? I’ll share extra technical particulars later on this weblog submit.

Easy methods to Get Began
Getting began with Amazon Linux 2023 isn’t any totally different than with different Linux distributions. You need to use the EC2 run-instances API, the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), or the AWS Administration Console, and one of many 4 Amazon Linux 2023 AMIs that we offer. We help two machine architectures (x86_64 and Arm) and two sizes (customary and minimal). Minimal AMIs include probably the most primary instruments and utilities to start out the OS. The usual model comes with probably the most generally used functions and instruments put in.

To retrieve the newest AMI ID for a particular Area, you should use AWS Programs Supervisor get-parameter API and question the /aws/service/ami-amazon-linux-latest/<alias> parameter.

Be sure you substitute <alias> with one of many 4 aliases out there:

  • For arm64 structure (customary AMI): al2023-ami-kernel-default-arm64
  • For arm64 structure (minimal AMI): al2023-ami-minimal-kernel-default-arm64
  • For x86_64 structure (customary AMI): al2023-ami-kernel-default-x86_64
  • For x86_64 structure (minimal AMI): al2023-ami-minimal-kernel-default-x86_64

For instance, to seek for the newest Arm64 full distribution AMI ID, I open a terminal and enter:

~ aws ssm get-parameters --region us-east-2 --names /aws/service/ami-amazon-linux-latest/al2023-ami-kernel-default-arm64

    "Parameters": [
            "Name": "/aws/service/ami-amazon-linux-latest/al2023-ami-kernel-default-arm64",
            "Type": "String",
            "Value": "ami-02f9b41a7af31dded",
            "Version": 1,
            "LastModifiedDate": "2023-02-24T22:54:56.940000+01:00",
            "ARN": "arn:aws:ssm:us-east-2::parameter/aws/service/ami-amazon-linux-latest/al2023-ami-kernel-default-arm64",
            "DataType": "text"
    "InvalidParameters": []

To launch an occasion, I take advantage of the run-instances API. Discover how I take advantage of Programs Supervisor decision to dynamically lookup the AMI ID from the CLI.

➜ aws ec2 run-instances                                                                            
       --image-id resolve:ssm:/aws/service/ami-amazon-linux-latest/al2023-ami-kernel-default-arm64  
       --key-name my_ssh_key_name                                                                   
       --instance-type c6g.medium                                                                   
       --region us-east-2 
    "Teams": [],
    "Situations": [
          "AmiLaunchIndex": 0,
          "ImageId": "ami-02f9b41a7af31dded",
          "InstanceId": "i-0740fe8e23f903bd2",
          "InstanceType": "c6g.medium",
          "KeyName": "my_ssh_key_name",
          "LaunchTime": "2023-02-28T14:12:34+00:00",

...(redacted for brevity)

When the instance is launched, and if the associated security group allows SSH (TCP 22) connections, I can connect to the machine:

~ ssh [email protected]
Warning: Permanently added '' (ED25519) to the list of known hosts.
   ,     #_
   ~_  ####_        Amazon Linux 2023
  ~~  _#####       Preview
  ~~     ###|
  ~~       #/ ___   https://aws.amazon.com/linux/amazon-linux-2023
   ~~       V~' '->
    ~~~         /
      ~~._.   _/
         _/ _/
Last login: Tue Feb 28 14:14:44 2023 from
[ec2-user@ip-172-31-9-76 ~]$ uname -a
Linux ip-172-31-9-76.us-east-2.compute.inner 6.1.12-19.43.amzn2023.aarch64 #1 SMP Thu Feb 23 23:37:18 UTC 2023 aarch64 aarch64 aarch64 GNU/Linux

We additionally distribute Amazon Linux 2023 as Docker photos. The Amazon Linux 2023 container picture is constructed from the identical software program parts which are included within the Amazon Linux 2023 AMI. The container picture is obtainable to be used in any atmosphere as a base picture for Docker workloads. Should you’re utilizing Amazon Linux for functions in EC2, you’ll be able to containerize your functions with the Amazon Linux container picture.

These photos can be found from Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR) and from Docker Hub. Here’s a fast demo to start out a Docker container utilizing Amazon Linux 2023 from Elastic Container Registry.

$ aws ecr-public get-login-password --region us-east-1 | docker login --username AWS --password-stdin public.ecr.aws
Login Succeeded
~ docker run --rm -it public.ecr.aws/amazonlinux/amazonlinux:2023 /bin/bash
Unable to seek out picture 'public.ecr.aws/amazonlinux/amazonlinux:2023' domestically
2023: Pulling from amazonlinux/amazonlinux
b4265814d5cf: Pull full 
Digest: sha256:bbd7a578cff9d2aeaaedf75eb66d99176311b8e3930c0430a22e0a2d6c47d823
Standing: Downloaded newer picture for public.ecr.aws/amazonlinux/amazonlinux:2023
bash-5.2# uname -a 
Linux 9d5b45e9f895 5.15.49-linuxkit #1 SMP PREEMPT Tue Sep 13 07:51:32 UTC 2022 aarch64 aarch64 aarch64 GNU/Linux
bash-5.2# exit 

When pulling from Docker Hub, you should use this command to tug the picture: docker pull amazonlinux:2023.

What Are the Essential Variations In comparison with Amazon Linux 2?
Amazon Linux 2023 has some variations in comparison with Amazon Linux 2. The documentation explains these variations intimately. The 2 variations I wish to concentrate on are dnf and the package deal administration insurance policies.

AL2023 comes with Fedora’s dnf, the successor to yum. However don’t fear, dnf offers related instructions as yum to go looking, set up, or take away packages. The place you used to run the instructions yum listing or yum set up httpd, it’s possible you’ll now run dnf listing or dnf set up httpd. For comfort, we create a symlink for /usr/bin/yum, so you’ll be able to run your scripts unmodified.

$ which yum
$ ls -al /usr/bin/yum
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 5 Jun 19 18:06 /usr/bin/yum -> dnf-3

The most important distinction, in my view, is the deterministic updates by means of versioned repositories. By default, the software program repository is locked to the AMI model. Which means a dnf replace command is not going to return any new packages to put in. Versioned repositories provide the assurance that each one machines began from the identical AMI ID are similar. Your infrastructure is not going to deviate from the baseline.

$ sudo dnf replace 
Final metadata expiration test: 0:14:10 in the past on Tue Feb 28 14:12:50 2023.
Dependencies resolved.
Nothing to do.

Sure, however what if you wish to replace a machine? You will have two choices to replace an current machine. The cleanest one on your manufacturing atmosphere is to create duplicate infrastructure primarily based on new AMIs. As I discussed earlier, we publish updates for each safety repair and a consolidated replace each three months for 2 years after the preliminary launch. Every replace is supplied as a set of AMIs and their corresponding software program repository.

For smaller infrastructure, corresponding to take a look at or growth machines, you may select to replace the working system or particular person packages in place as nicely. This can be a three-step course of:

  • first, listing the out there up to date software program repositories;
  • second, level dnf to a particular software program repository;
  • and third, replace your packages.

To indicate you the way it works, I purposely launched an EC2 occasion with an “outdated” model of Amazon Linux 2023 from February 2023. I first run dnf check-release-update to listing the out there up to date software program repositories.

$ dnf check-release-update
  A more moderen launch of "Amazon Linux" is obtainable.

  Obtainable Variations:

  Model 2023.0.20230308:
    Run the next command to improve to 2023.0.20230308:

      dnf improve --releasever=2023.0.20230308

    Launch notes:

Then, I’d both replace the total distribution utilizing dnf improve --releasever=2023.0.20230308 or level dnf to the up to date repository to pick particular person packages.

$ dnf check-update --releasever=2023.0.20230308

Amazon Linux 2023 repository                                                    28 MB/s |  11 MB     00:00
Amazon Linux 2023 Kernel Livepatch repository                                  1.2 kB/s | 243  B     00:00

amazon-linux-repo-s3.noarch                          2023.0.20230308-0.amzn2023                amazonlinux
binutils.aarch64                                     2.39-6.amzn2023.0.5                       amazonlinux
ca-certificates.noarch                               2023.2.60-1.0.amzn2023.0.1                amazonlinux
(redacted for brevity)
util-linux-core.aarch64 2.37.4-1.amzn2022.0.1 amazonlinux

Lastly, I’d run a dnf replace <package_name> command to replace a particular package deal.

This may appear like overkill for a easy machine, however when managing enterprise infrastructure or large-scale fleets of cases, this facilitates the administration of your fleet by guaranteeing that each one cases run the identical model of software program packages. It additionally signifies that the AMI ID is now one thing that you would be able to totally run by means of your CI/CD pipelines for deployment and that you’ve got a option to roll AMI variations ahead and backward based on your schedule.

The place is Fedora?
When on the lookout for a base to function a place to begin for Amazon Linux 2023, Fedora was the only option. We discovered that Fedora’s core tenets (Freedom, Mates, Options, First) resonate nicely with our imaginative and prescient for Amazon Linux. Nonetheless, Amazon Linux focuses on a long-term, secure OS for the cloud, which is a notable totally different launch cycle and lifecycle than Fedora. Amazon Linux 2023 offers up to date variations of open-source software program, a bigger number of packages, and frequent releases.

Amazon Linux 2023 isn’t instantly corresponding to any particular Fedora launch. The Amazon Linux 2023 GA model contains parts from Fedora 34, 35, and 36. A few of the parts are the identical because the parts in Fedora, and a few are modified. Different parts extra intently resemble the parts in CentOS Stream 9 or have been developed independently. The Amazon Linux kernel, on its aspect, is sourced from the long-term support options that are on kernel.org, chosen independently from the kernel supplied by Fedora.

Like each good citizen within the open-source group, we give again and contribute our adjustments to upstream distributions and sources for the good thing about the complete group. Amazon Linux 2023 itself is open supply. The supply code for all RPM packages which are used to construct the binaries that we ship can be found by means of the SRPM yum repository (sudo dnf set up -y 'dnf-command(obtain)' && dnf obtain --source bash)

One Extra Factor: Amazon EBS Gp3 Volumes
Amazon Linux 2023 AMIs use gp3 volumes by default.

Gp3 is the newest era general-purpose solid-state drive (SSD) quantity for Amazon Elastic Block Retailer (Amazon EBS). Gp3 offers 20 p.c decrease storage prices in comparison with gp2. Gp3 volumes ship a baseline efficiency of three,000 IOPS and 125MB/s at any quantity dimension. What I notably like about gp3 volumes is that I can now provision efficiency independently of capability. When utilizing gp3 volumes, I can now enhance IOPS and throughput with out incurring fees for further capability that I don’t really want.

With the supply of gp3-backed AL2023 AMIs, that is the primary time a gp3-backed Amazon Linux AMI is obtainable. Gp3-backed AMIs have been a typical buyer request since gp3 was launched in 2020. It’s now out there by default.

Worth and Availability
Amazon Linux 2023 is supplied at no extra cost. Commonplace Amazon EC2 and AWS fees apply for operating EC2 cases and different companies. This distribution contains full help for 5 years. When deploying on AWS, our help engineers will present technical help based on the phrases and circumstances of your AWS Assist plan. AMIs can be found in all AWS Areas.

Amazon Linux is probably the most used Linux distribution on AWS, with lots of of hundreds of shoppers utilizing Amazon Linux 2. Dozens of Impartial Software program Distributors (ISVs) and {hardware} companions are supporting Amazon Linux 2023 at the moment. You possibly can undertake this new model with the arrogance that the associate instruments you depend on are more likely to be supported. We’re enthusiastic about this launch, which brings you a fair larger stage of safety, a predictable launch lifecycle, and a constant replace expertise.

Now go construct and deploy your workload on Amazon Linux 2023 at the moment.

— seb